Ashley Botkin — Week 7 Recap

In week 7 I was able to find many more interesting images from the “Monograph of Haiti,” a document of intelligence complied by U.S. Marines during their time in Haiti, published in 1932. Some of my favorite images are aerial photographs of cities in Haiti, and there are many of Port-au-Prince.

I have started reading Raphael Dalleo’s “American Imperialism’s Undead: The Occupation of Haiti and the Rise of Caribbean Anticolonialism,” but the book focuses more on literature during the period of American imperialism than what was specifically happening in Haiti, but the introduction was useful.

Aerial photograph of Port-au-Prince
Haitian gendarmerie personnel

Ashley Botkin — Week 6 Recap

Last week I was able to finish proofreading my Introduction page for the exhibit, as well as create and finish writing another page, “The NAACP and The Nation Investigate.” The “Investigate” page still needs images added to it, so I am currently trying to determine which of the images I’ve found should go where, especially since I have many more pages to create for the exhibit.

I was able to pick up “American Imperialism’s Undead: The Occupation of Haiti and the Rise of Caribbean Anticolonialism” by Raphael Dalleo. Reviews of the book mentioned a rich use of primary sources, so I am hoping to find more images and primary source material to add to my information.

This week I plan on making my way through the book and taking notes on it, searching for more images, and creating more pages for the exhibit.

Airplanes in Haiti, c. 1919

Ashley Botkin — Week 5 Recap

Week 5 was extremely fruitful in terms of finding photos and primary sources to look through. “Racism in U.S. Imperialism” by Rubin Francis Weston was useful in providing a comprehensive look at the U.S. occupation of Haiti, as well as primary source footnotes that will be useful in my exhibit.

I also started putting together the introduction page on my online exhibit. I will be working on pages on topics concerning:

  • The NAACP and The Nation investigates Haiti
  • History of U.S. Imperialism and “The White Man’s Burden”
  • The Monroe Doctrine and its Expansion under Wilson
  • The Hispaniola Senate Hearings
  • Haitian Responses to Occupation
  • Freedom of the Haitian Press
  • Lasting effects of Occupation

I was also able to find many photos from 1915-1921, but one of the struggles I am facing is finding photos of Haitians. Many of the photos are of Marines and their weapons, bases, and daily life.

Body of Charlemagne Péralte, November 1919 — photograph of the body of caco leader Charlemagne Péralte after he was killed by Marines, who then nailed his body to a door as a warning to other rebels. Photographs were distributed to Haitians by plane as a scare tactic, but the photo quickly became a symbol of the resistance.
U.S. Marine with dead Haitian Rebels, 1915 — a Marine poses for a photograph with bodies of Haitian cacos in the background.

Ashley Botkin — Week 4 Recap

I was able to make a trip to Charlottesville in order to pick up some books for my research. Unfortunately, the book that contained the most primary sources had been moved into storage to prepare for upcoming renovations to the library. I have requested the item, so hopefully they are able to find it.

In the next few weeks, I plan on making a trip to Washington, D.C. in order to look at Marine accounts from Haiti in the National Archives. I’m hoping to find source material for the violence being inflicted on the Haitians by the USMC, as claimed in many of The Nation articles. In the meantime, I will be making my way through the books I have now and narrowing in on my exhibit topic.

“La Croix Rouge, la mère de toutes les nations” “Symboles de la Liberté et de l’Humanité” — Red Cross poster from 1914 reading “The Red Cross, mother of all nations” and “Symbols of liberty and humanity” with the Haitian and U.S. flags.

Ashley Botkin — Week 3 Recap

This week, I read through the NAACP Haiti account written by James Weldon Johnson in 1920. After traveling to Haiti, he summarized his investigation into the current conditions in Haiti and reasons for American intervention. According to Weldon, the U.S. believed Haiti had reached a state of anarchy intolerable in the civilized world, Haitians demonstrated “absolute unfitness” to govern themselves, and Haiti has benefitted from American control.

I have also ready through several articles published in The Nation in 1920 by Johnson and others. In Johnson’s articles, he focused on one topic, like the control the National City Bank had over the finances of Haiti, in order to shed light on the motivations of the United States in occupying Haiti. Helena Hill Weed wrote an article detailing the Senate hearings on Haiti and Santo Domingo, in which several high-ranking officers testified that there was no plan for development in Haiti and the U.S. did not uphold their end of the treaty.

Next, I’m planning to read through the Senate hearing documents in order to have primary source material for the above articles. I am also hoping to find more accounts from the NAACP or The Nation that include the Haitian response to U.S. occupation.

Ashley Botkin — Week 2 Recap

Last week, I was able to finish labelling and describing our Haiti sources. I made note of interesting texts that I would like to revisit when putting together my online exhibit. I was especially looking for sources that revealed the intentions of the U.S. occupation. I also began looking for visuals from the Library of Congress and National Archives. I’ve found many newspaper articles from the very beginning of the U.S. occupation, and I am still making my way through years of clippings on the LOC website.

Image not found
The New York Times: Sunday, August 8, 1915. “The United States Battleship Connecticut, with 500 Marines on board, sailing from Philadelphia to Haiti, to put down the revolution.”

I am starting to finalize my online exhibit topics, and I am hoping to focus on three topics:

  • Haitian Responses to the U.S. Occupation
  • “The White Man’s Burden” and U.S. Imperialism
  • The Expansion of the Monroe Doctrine under Wilson

Ashley Botkin — Week 1 Recap

My name is Ashley Botkin, and I will be a fourth-year at the University of Virginia in the fall. I’m a double-major in art history and religious studies, a docent and museum assistant at the Fralin Museum of Art, and the assistant managing editor for The Cavalier Daily. I am currently interning with Mark in the Archives Department of the LARC. I’ve been awarded a grant from the Mellon Indigenous Arts Program at U.Va., and the main focus of my research will be on indigenous African peoples.

This past week I spent my time proofreading entries in the Race and Segregation Collection, and it was interesting to see how many people were writing to President Wilson regarding lynchings in the United States. One letter especially stood out to me due to its visual language.

Excerpt of a letter to President Wilson pleading for the federal government to intervene in the prevalence of lynchings.

For Week 2, I’ll be starting on my digital exhibit project on the U.S. occupation of Haiti during Woodrow Wilson’s term.